In 1945, soon after the end of the Second World War the United Nations Organization was founded. It is a world organization with a large number of self-governing states as its members. Before that at end of the First World War, there was another global organization called the League of Nations. After dominating the world politics for ten or fifteen years after it had failed to continue. It could not stand to manage influence and power politics. The head of the Secretariat is called the. The first secretary general was Gladwyn Jebb from USA. The present Secretary General is Ban Ki-moon. He was solidly elected to a second term by the General Assembly on 21 June 2011. His second term began on 1 January 2012. He was the Foreign Minister of the Republic of Korea from January 2004 to November 2006.
Towards the end of the Second World War the people of the world felt the need of a world body strong enough to prevent war. In 1944 the three war-rime associates- the United States, United Kingdom and the Soviet Union-met at Dumbarton Oaks. They thought of establishing an organization for the maintenance of International Peace and Security and Co-operation in establishing political, economic and social conditions. They drew up a number of proposals which latter on formed the basis of the U.N. Charter. In 1945 fifty-one nations met at San Francisco and signed the U.N.O. Charter. Thus the United Nations Organization was made up.
The united nation was built with some great purposes. The goals of the United Nations Organization are to maintain international peace and security, to develop friendly relations among nations based on respect for equal rights and self-determination of peoples, to promote co-operation economic, social, cultural, and humanitarian fields among nations and promote respect for human rights and fundamental freedom of all, to act as a centre harmonizing the actions of nations in attaining these common ends.
The Security Council is the most important body part of the U.N.O. that consists of five permanent members and ten non-permanent members. Britain, France, U.S.A., Russia and China are the five permanent members. The responsibility of the Security Council is to explore international disputes and to take suitable action in preventing danger to international peace. In order to make the decisions of Security Council effective, there should be agreement in five permanent members. If even one of these permanent members vetoes the decision, it will be ineffective.
After Security Council the General Assembly is next in importance. Every member nation has one vote in the Assembly. It makes recommendations to the Security Council. The General Assembly performs deliberative functions and the he Security Council is an executive body
There are several organizations that work under the U.N. These are International Court of Justice, International Monetary Fund, The World Bank, Food and Agricultural Organization, united Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO),International Labour Organization (ILO), The World Health Organization (WHO), Trusteeship Council, United Nation Development Programme, United Nation Information and Children Education Foundation (UNICEF) etc. The secretariat of the UN selects its staff from the member nations.
The U.N. is actively involved resolving problems. We as citizens of our wide international community have the duty to enlighten ourselves and the people around us all about the significance of the U.N.
The struggle for peace, justice and human dignity waged at the U.N. is very much for the whole world.
The utility of the U.N.O. is a topic for hot disagreement. So far it has dealt with a few problems. It has achieved incomplete success. In many cases it has failed, while in few cases it has succeeded. It is criticized for its failure. Of course, much can be said on both sides. It is, however, certain that it has justified its existence as the most practical instrument for peace ever devised through voluntary co-operation among different nations. So far it has refused to be a tool in the hands of any nation. This is the secret of its strength. It fills the peoples of the world with hope that it will prevent the rash of any devastating war.
The U.N.O. has held extended debates on the problem of expulsion. There is a great risk of total extinction of humanity as a result of third world-war which would be certainly an atomic war. It is high time all the nations decide to give up the use of atomic energy for destructive purposes.
The objectives of U.N.O is created a great obstacle by National and racial barriers combined with power-politics. At present the U.N.O. is dominated by Western Powers, but this state of things is not going to last long. The newly liberated nations of Asia and Africa have come to their own and occupy and adequate position in world politics.
As this was created with the great purpose of keeping peace among the nations of the world by the standard solution of conflicts that occurs between the nations. So this should be free from grouping and supporting illegally one. It should be free bias. Only then the U.N. can be able to keep their characters as they hoped at the beginning.