Syria officially named as Syrian Arab republic is a country of fertile plans a land of highly mountains and desert. It a home for different ethnics groups like Kurds, Americans, Assyrians, Christians, and Arab suunis. It shares border with Lebanon and Mediterranean Sea to west, turkey to north, Iraq to east Jordan to south and Israel to southwest. Modern Syria got independence from France in 1946 and has passed under the several political instability and conflicts among the different ethnic groups. After the death of Hafez al-Assad in 2000 the condition of country was bit improved hundreds of political prisoners were released but the real political freedom and availability of basic right cannot turned to be true. The Syrian civil war is an ongoing armed conflict between the security forces of Ba’Ath government and Rebels. In year 2012 united nation report described the conflict as “Overtly sectarian conflict in nature”. Between the Shia groups fighting largely against the Sunni rebel groups.
The disturbances begin on March 2011 with a protest that was the part of Middle Eastern protest movement commonly known as Arab spring. The conflict started when the protester demanded for the resignation of president Bashar al-Assad .But the situation became worse when the army soldiers fired on demonstrators across the country as a result protest evolved into armed rebellion.
And because of this war Syria has been classified as “lower middle income country” by the World Bank. Syria remains dependent on oil and agriculture sector. And because of civil war oil resources are expected to decrease in coming years because of the war Syrian economy has fell down 35% and Syrian pound has fallen to 1/6th of its value. Because of the Civil war countless innocent civilians have died and from those who left behind they are not able to live normal life. According to Mail online on occasion of Eid al-aha weapons like rockets , mortar shells bullet have been used to create musical instruments and toys for children to entertain them.
Problem/ thesis statement
Because of the civil war the food situation has become so worried that scholars have issued a fatwa allowing starving people in Syria to eat cats and dogs in order to survive. In 2011-2012 security forces used tanks, gunfire and other harmful weapons in order to crush the anti-government protest.
According to united nation the total death due to this conflict have reached to 100,000 in June 2013 and the number reached to 120,000 in September 2013. In addition thousands of protesters have been sent to prisons. It has been observed that both government and opposition forces have been involved in violations of human rights. According to UN (United Nation) report more than two millions of Syrians have left the country and become refugee and millions were left in poor living condition with shortage of food and Drinking water.
The oil rich region has always been focus of interest of western countries. the recent Iraq war regime change in Egypt are the evidences. The west is now interested in bringing about similar change in Syria in order to get the economic benefits for long term. So the best option for them in order to get their interest is to divide and conquer and this is the policy which has been practiced by western countries many times. Displacement of former president of Iraq Saddam Hussein and Muammar Gaddafi are the evidence of phenomenon. In his address to nation president Assad invited rebels to settle the problem through peaceful negotiations across the table But the Syrian national coalition (the main opposition party) rejected the proposal.
The armed-rebellion against the Asad regime is in its third year and seems to be continuing which is not a good. Currently Iran and Lebanese Hezbollah have given support to Asad regime in order to overcome the situation. Report from some rebels held northern areas shows that Rebellion groups have got strength. On 30th august Obama administration presented an intelligence analysis claiming that Syrian government is responsible for chemical weapon attacks against the Civilians. While the Syrian government did not accept responsibility of using the chemical weapons. While the US government report shows that 1429 peoples were killed in chemical attack among them 426 were children. While the Asad regime claims that chemical weapons were used by the rebellion. So as a result united nation and Russia announced an agreement that Syria will eliminate chemical weapons under the supervision of united nation by the mid of 2014.
Al Qaeda, Extremism, and Foreign Fighters
There are hundreds or perhaps thousands of different militants groups who have been involved in Syria civil war. The unstable and unbalanced condition of Syria has given opportunity for extremist to conduct or plan the attack in order to get their advantages. According to one recent study “At the very least, the current war in Syria can be considered as third largest foreign Mujahedeen war”. Iraqi government claims that Al Qaeda in Iraq created a Syrian militant group named “Al– Nursa group” while later in 2013 Nursa split into two groups one group remained its original name while the other group which was led by Abu Bakr Al Baghdadi renamed their group as “ Islamic state of Iraq and Sham”. The leaders of the group encourage foreign fighters to travel to Syria and fight against the Asad government and because of involvement of foreign warrior the conditions in Syria become poorer. The other prominent groups are Syrian Islamic front (SIF), the Saquour Sham bridges, the Abdullah Azzam bridges the Ummah Bridge (Liwa al Ummah) and Syrian Islamic liberation front (SILF). Syrian Islamic front (SIF) has more had line view than SILF (Syrian Islamic liberation front) toward the united state and Israel. Even some conservative Sunni clerics have issued religious statement by declaring the fight against regime as “defensive Jihad”. Like the late Al-Qaeda leader Abu yahya al Libi released a statement arguing that fighters are on the right path and they should continue to do so. The Syrian civil war has received significant international attention and both the Syrian government and rebellion have received support in terms of military, logically and diplomatically from foreign countries. Like the main Syrian opposition body Syrian coalition receives logistic from major Sunni states in Middle East like Turkey, Qatar, and Saudi Arabia. France, Britain and WE have also provided their support to rebellion and these countries are using rebellions for their own benefits. Likewise Syrian government is supported by the Iran and Hezbollah. The Syrian government also receives support from Russia. This is the reason why Russia used its veto power in security when united state of America (USA) decided to attack on Asad regime after the chemical attack. And because of involvement of foreign countries and groups the situation in Syria has become inferior and foreign countries are using rebellion and Regime for their own benefits. On 1st November 2011, NATO (North Atlantic treaty organization) said they had no intention of taking military action in Syria after it closed its seven moth operation in Libya. On the same month Libyan rulers offered weapons and money to rebel fighters that moved from Libya to Syria in order to support rebels. In July 2012 in conference in Paris Western and Sunni Arab countries announced they are going to massively increase aid to Syrian opposition. Foreign Sunnis are fighting for the opposition while the foreign Shias are fighting for the government. Estimated the number of foreign Sunnis fighting against the government ranges from 5000 to over 10,000 while the pro government Shia numbers around 10,000. And over 600 foreign fighters were killed in first half of 2013 alone.
U.S. Policy toward Syria: 2011 to Present.
Because of civil war on great level the regime has suffered to shortage of man power and in order to wind up insurrection it has brought foreign fighter from Hezbollah and from the Iran Revoluntary Guard crops and even Iraqi Shias are fighting in the favor of government. While USA claims they are working with Russia and other international community in order to seek the political solution. On October 22nd, 2013 in London 11 countries showed their goodwill toward Syrian opposition.
The Goal of US policy is to end violence and to bring down Asad regime and introduce a stable democratic system for the protection of Syrians people. American, European and Turkish goal is to end Asad family regime. During the conflict initial phase when security forces killed innocents people US declared sanction on Syrian government officials the purpose was to stop Asad government to kill guiltless people. Instead of fulfilling the demands of people and Asad refuse to resign to resign and continue his strategy to take life of naive people in order to save his government.USA government called Asad resignation in August 2011 but Asad refuse to do so. For the next year US officials attempted to sanction on regime reach on cease fire and to find political solution. But all of these efforts were blocked by Russian and Chinese because they rejected such proposals in Security Council. After a year later when UN (united nation) was unable to take any step toward the civil war the because of Russia and china. At the same time White house continued to reject the offers by rebellion to attack on Syria. But when security forces used chemical weapons against civilians USA announced that they are going to attack Syrian government in order to help the Syrian public. But USA cannot do the same because at the same Russia announce if USA will attack on Syria then Russia will on Saudi Arabia who is the main allay of USA. This was the reason why USA was powerless to any armed step against Syria. The united nation also took beginning step to support the defense of boarding countries with Syria like Jordan, Turkey with the deployment of Missile. In may 2013 united nation and Russia agreed to jointly work and to hold a peace conference in Geneva in hope of bringing peace in Syria. The use of chemical weapons in Damascus suburbs was the latest and very shameful attack of Syrian army on public including females and children. USA Condemned the attack even Obama administration announced use of chemical weapon is a“red line” that would “change his calculus”. In August 31, 2013 president stated his conclusion that united state should respond to Syrian government with limited Military strikes. on August 31, 2013 Obama submitted a draft requesting congress to authorize to use the force against Syrian regime to hold the Asad regime accountable of suing chemical weapons
Although USA claims they want to help the innocent people who have been suffered because of war but analyst claims USA is using rebel forces for its own purposes. Because USA wants to increase his influence in Middle East in order to take control on oil resources and other mineral capital which is In abundant in this region. Actually this is the war between the world powers like China, Russia, China, Iran, and Saudi Arabia who have been using Asad government and rebellion for their own reimbursement. And because of greediness of such countries innocent people have suffered.
Syrian economy and sanctions.
National economy and national budget of Syria are suffering because of sanctions and loss of tourism revenue also spending lot of income on Military. Urban areas are now experiencing daily load shedding as a result lot of factories, mills are unable to run their businesses which has result to increase in poverty. For the reason that European oil import ban Syria has loss a major resource of revenue roughly about 25%—30% of total revenue or 4 billion a year (economic intelligence unit). Before the sanction the major buyer of Syrian oil were Italy, Germany, France, Austaria and Turkey. Foreign oil companies that have suspended operation in Syria includes Tatnet(Russia) Royal Dutch/Shell group , Total(France) and INA(Croatia).Western countries have also banned non-licensed investment in Syria Oil and gas sector. But the European do not ban the export of liquid petroleum gas (LPG) because it is widely used by ordinary households for heating and cooking purposes.
However Venezuela has supplied diesel fuel in exchange of Syrian naphtha (petroleum product). The country use to sell 95% of its oil to Europe before the sanction but now only few countries are buyer of Syrian oil at reduced prices. According to Kadri jamil (Deputy Economy minister) counties including Iran, china and Russia are supporting to stabilize national economy. Because of war many building and infrastructure has been destroyed. The London based Syrian network for human rights estimates that 589,000 buildings including resident homes, schools, Mosques, churches and hospitals have been destroyed or damage. It will take a lot of money and human capital in order to rebuild it again. Now it is the responsibility of other countries and UN to make a cease fire agreement between government and rebels to avoid Syria from further destruction.
The conflict between Asad government and rebel has cost of thousands of innocent lives. In the starting of conflict it was estimated by USA by supporting the rebels Asad will resign from his government. Both the opposition and Asad regime have faced considerable challenges to control over the Syria. Opposition forces are supported by USA, Saudia Arabia, Russia while Iran, Hezbollah are supporting the Asad regime. These groups are using Syrian for their own interest in the region. Obama administration has been demanding for Asad resignation since 2011 but Asad is not ready to resign. Because of sanctions the economy of country has destroyed but it cannot create any change in statement of regime. UN (united nation) and other involved countries should play their role to bring both Asad regime and rebellion to table in order to avoid from further destruction. The only way through which prosperity can be brought is negotiation. Countries like Iran, Saudi Arabia, USA, Russia and China they should not play with the blood of innocent Syrian people for their advantages .They must bring rebellions and regime on table to solve the conflict. This is the only way through which prosperity can be brought in Syria.
According to Oscar wide “we are each our own devil and we make this world hell”. And to make this world like a heaven everyone has to play his/her role.
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