In week eight and week nine, we discussed about the united nations Its history and its back ground. The name “United Nations”, created by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt was first used in the deceleration by united nation of 1 January 1942, during the Second World War, when representative of twenty six nations pledged their Governments to continue fighting together against the Axis Powers. States first established international organizations to cooperate on specific matters. The ITU was founded in 1865 as the International Telegraph Union, and the Universal postal union was established in 1874. Both are now United Nations specialized agencies In 1899, the International Peace Conference was held in The Hague to elaborate instruments for settling crises peacefully, preventing wars and codifying rules of warfare. It adopted the Convention for the Pacific Settlement of International Disputes and established in 1902.
The purpose of the United Nations is to bring all nations of the world together to work for peace and development, based on the principles of justice, human dignity and the well-being of all people. It affords the opportunity for countries to balance global interdependence and national interests when addressing international problems. There are currently 192 Members of the United Nations. They meet in the General Assembly, which is the closest thing to a world parliament. Each country, large or small, rich or poor, has a single vote; however, none of the decisions taken by the Assembly are binding. Nevertheless, the Assembly’s decisions become resolutions that carry the weight of world governmental opinion.
Recently, international conferences organized by the UN have gained significance. UN conferences have been held since the 1960s, but with the Conference on Environment and Development, known as the Earth Summit, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1992, they turned into real fora for deciding on national and international policy regarding issues that affect everyone such as the environment, human rights and economic development.