Child abuse is physical maltreatment, sexual molestation or neglect of a child or children. The Center for disease and preventation (CDC) and the Dapartment for children and families (DCF) define child maltreatment as any proceed or progression of acts of commission or omission by a parent or other caregiver that results in harm, possible for harm, or threat of harm to a child. Child abuse can occur in a child’s home, or in the societies, schools or neighborhood the child relates with. Child abuse cannot be distinguished on the basis of age, sex, race or religion. Any children for any reason can be offended at any time. Today parents and children are facing this trouble. The fear is someone purposely or accidentally is hurting the child by some or other way. Over half a million children suffer serious injuries, and about 1,500 children die, making child maltreatment the leading cause of deaths from injuries in children over a year old (Institute of Medicine, 1999).According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services report (2012), there is one case of child abuse in every ten second and more than four children die because of child abuse every day. Under age of 4 children are involved in 80% of these cases. Preventing child abuse is considered as a main concern in Europe and America, there is detail laws and policies to deal with this issues. Dissimilar authorities have developed their own meaning of what represents child abuse for the reasons of taking out a child from his/her family and/or accusing a immoral charge. According to the Journal of Child Abuse and Neglect, child abuse is “any current act or breakdown to act on the part of a parent or guardians which outcome in death, serious physical or emotional destruction, sexual abuse or exploitation, a work or breakdown to act which current an looming risk of severe hurt”.Child abuse can be found in several form. However, the main primary problem of all abuse cases is because of family poverty.
2. Thesis Statement
The rate of causing child abuse is increasing in recent years. Parents and societies have expressed alarm on these issues. In this research paper, there will be included the mainly types of child abuse in many countries namely, physical abuse, emotional or psychological abuse and sexual abuse.
3. Content and Development
3.1 Argument 1
Firstly, Physical aggression directed at a child by an adult is involved as in the case of physically abuse. Child abuse law in most nations is considered the purposeful infliction of serious injuries, or actions that set the child at evident risk of serious injury or death, to be illegal. Bruises, cuts, burns, broken bones, as well as repeated accident and rough cure that could cause physical hurt, can be physical abuse. Most of the physical abuses come from unsuitable or extreme physical discipline. Parents or caretakers may be ignorant of the level of force with which they beat the children. The immaturity of parents, poor childhood experiences and separation from the social are the factors that can contribute to child abuse and other reasons are drug or alcohol problems and domestics violence in parents or guardians. Garbarino(1977)claims that young, poorly educated single mother from lower socioeconomic group are commonly identified as being high risk to abuse. According to the research from the united nation child abuse, one in nine young adults (11.5%) and one in 14 children aged 11-17 (6.9%) had experienced severe physical violence at the hands of an adult.
Child abuse contains many assumptions about the penalty of child abuse for the victim, his or her family, and civilization. Windom(1989)claims that “particular concern is the extent to which early physical abuse leads to later aggression and violence, that is, the extent to which violence begets violence”. It is very serious problems for the future life. Schmitt and Kempe (1975) state that the hazards of child abuse broaden ahead of hurt to the victim: “If the child who has been physically abused is returned to his parents without intervention, 5% are killed and 35% are seriously reinjured. Moreover, the untreated families tend to produce children who grow up to be juvenile delinquents and murders, as well as the batterers of the next generation”.
3.2 Argument 2
Emotional abuse is defined as the making of emotional and collective insufficiency in the expansion of a child as a result of manners such as loud screaming, rude and impolite manner, negligence, unsympathetic condemnation, and unfair criticism of the child’s behavior. Other examples include name-calling, mock, humiliation, demolition of personal stuff,persecute or killing of a pet, extreme denigration , unsuitable or excessive anxiety, maintenance communication, and custom category or embarrassment. Victims of emotional abuse may counter by disaffection themselves from the abuser, internalizing the violent words, or aggressive back by offensive the abuser. Emotional abuse can result in irregular or disorder, addition expansion a propensity for victims to guilt themselves for the abuseand overly inactive performance. Radford et al (2011) found that just under 7% of the 18-24 year olds they questioned had experienced emotional abuse during their childhood.
Riggs (2010)stated in his articles about emotional abuse that it may stem from a poor emotional connection (attachment) between a parent or guardians and their child. Problems within the home can take a parent’s or guardian’s focus away from providing the emotional love and support that a child needs. For example, parents are taking out their anger when they are in periods of high stress and tension (eg. financial problem).That time children can be abused by emotionally. Emotional abuse can be outside such as school, neighborhoods rather than home. Some factors that can link to emotional abuse are poverty, away from the friend, different language problem and activities from the school.
Emotional effect can change the children to aggressive behaviors. Emotional affect is less serious than physical effects but it can damage the long term of health and manners of the children. Millitech et al( 2010) indicates that “Children who grow up in loveless homes where they are berated and belittled constantly may experience self-confidence and anger problems. Physical intimidation and anger against children can change their behaviors and has been linked with attention deficit disorders”. Children who abuse emotionally can increase risk taking actions like fighting, bullying other children and stealing property. They will also have less level of satisfaction and high level of depression and it can lead to the health problem. The rate of health problem of emotional abused children is more than other children who is abused by another way. Shaffer et al, (2009) states that “adolescents who are emotionally abused, especially those who have been abused over a long period of time, they are more likely to self-harm and experience depression than children who are not emotionally abused”. So, children will be abuse emotionally because of having a poor emotional relationship with parents and care-givers.
3.3 Argument 3
Finally, sexual abuse is one of the most confusing and puzzling harms facing families. Those that should be protecting their children are either the executor or unconscious to the fact that their child is being sexually abused. Rape or any sexual exploitation include in the category of sexual abuse. This is very common abuse today. Most of the baby sitters or day care people are found involved in this kind of abuse as well. According to the American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy (2012), 1 out of 4 girls and 1 out of 5 boys are sexually abused by the time they are 18years of age. Swan(1990) stated that “child abuse occurs at every socioeconomic level, across ethnic and cultural lines, within all religions and at all levels of education”. According to the united nation child abuse research, one in 20 children (4.8%) has experienced contact sexual abuse. Over 90% of children, who experienced sexual abuse, were abused by someone they knew. More than one in three children (34%) who experienced contact sexual abuse by an adult did not tell anyone else about it. Four out of five children (82.7%) who experienced contact sexual abuse from a peer did not tell anyone else about it.
Most sexually abused victim are female and they are from low income family. First one of child sexually abused may be from family member of the child. Ryan, (1997 ) purposed that “any sexual behavior between a child and a member of their family (e.g., parent, uncle) would always be considered abusive, while sexual behavior between two adolescents may or may not be considered abusive, depending on whether the behavior was consensual, whether any coercion was present, or whether the relationship between the two young people was equal”. Second possibility is Adults in a position of power or authority over the child (eg. teacher). According to the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (2011), there are 80,000 cases in child sexually abused in one year. There will be greater becuses children are afraid to tell what happens.
For the affect of abusing children by sexually, Garnefski and Diekstra (1997) compared “745 sexually abused boys and girls with a matched group of 745 non-sexually abused children ages 12–19 years on mental health problems including suicide in a large general population in the Netherlands. Sexually abused individuals reported more suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts compared to their non-abused counterparts. Gender interactions revealed that males who were sexually abused made significantly more suicide attempts compared to sexually abused females. No gender differences were found in suicidal thoughts and behavior for individuals who were not sexually abused”.
For the above reason, child abuse is one of the serious dominant current issues. Children are the resources of future. These horrible issues can only destroy the future of the children and also can lead to death in serious cases. They all carry personal property with them, hurting the child in some way and also subsequent the child up to their maturity making living even harder. Associations with others become harder and trust is reduced. Information ascends and descends each day but they will never be totally gone, for that would be almost unworkable. Children are the next generation and are obviously our expectations so why must we abuse our expectations? With every shout, every put down, every beat and every unsuitable touch, the child is more likely to become a criminal and our expectation is endangered. This is child abuse and it’s watching us in the look as a crisis we can decrease just by paying awareness to it.
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