March 6, 2013 was the week 8 and for this week, we have learned about United Nation: General Overview and Dr Faosiy gave the lecture. Before our lecturer starts his lecture, he asked us when you heard the words United Nation or UN what comes in your mind and students answered globalization, war and many more. This is actually to let students have some idea about the topic that we will learn.
United Nation (UN) is an international organization formed in 1945 to increase political and economic cooperation among member countries. The organization works on economic and social development programs, improving human right and reducing global conflicts. In addition, according the slide that MR Faosiy shows to us, United Nation (UN) is an International organization where stated aims are facilitating cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human right and achievement of world peace. After know the definition, I got some idea what UN is all about.
Besides that, United Nation has six principles. The first is general assembly. The General Assembly or GA is the main deliberative organ of the UN. Decision on important questions, such as those on peace and security, admission of new members and budgetary matters, require two-thirds majority. Moreover, there are 194 members of United Nation including Sudan. Sudan is the latest member joining the UN. There have one representative in each country. The second principles are Security Council. Security Council has primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security. In addition, it has 15 members and each member has one vote. Among these 15 members five permanent members with veto power and ten non- permanent members elected by General Assembly for a two year term. Besides, under the charter, all member States are obligated to comply with Council decision. Moreover, The Security Council takes the lead in determining the existence of a threat to the peace or act of aggression. It calls upon the parties to a dispute to settle it by peaceful means and recommends methods of adjustment or terms of settlement. On the other hand, in some cases the Security Council can resort to imposing sanction or even authorize the use of force to maintain or restore international peace and security. Besides, the meetings are called at any given time when the need arises. They also rotating presidency, which means members will takes turn at holding presidency of the Security Council for a month.
Economic and social council is the third principles of the UN. Economic and social (ECOSOC) are concern more about the worlds’ economic, social and environment challenges, which mean if have any disaster, war or any problem ECOSOC will responsible to help. Furthermore, the founding UN Charter body was establish in 1946, the Council is the place where such issues are discuss, debate and policy recommendations issued. In addition, ECOSOC has broad responsibility. For example, they will have the forum to discuss about international economic and social progress, to achieve the Millennium development goals, coordinate financing for development and development cooperation, strengthen emergency humanitarian assistance, promote economic and social needs of post-conflict countries and secure continuous political commitment.
The next principle of United Nation is secretariat. On June 2011, the Secretariat had 43,747 staff members around the world. The secretariat carries out diverse the day-to-day work of the organization. Its head is the secretary general who is appoint by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council for a five year, renewable term. Moreover, Secretariat carry duties as varied as the problems dealt with the United Nations. These range from administering peacekeeping operations to mediating international disputes, from surveying economic and social trends and problems to preparing studies on human right and sustainable development. In addition, the staffs of secretariat also inform what is going on, for instance, the work of the United Nation, organized international conferences on issues of worldview concern; and interpret speeches and translate documents into the Organization’s official languages to the communication media around the world.
Besides that, International Court of Justice (ICJ) and Trusteeship Council are the other principles of United Nation. The International Court of Justice or ICJ is located at The Hague in the Netherlands is the main principle judicial of the United Nation. The international court of justice is for settle the legal dispute among the state and gives advisory opinions to the UN and the specialized agencies. The Statute is an integral part of the Charter of the United Nations (UN). While, Trusteeship Council is authorized to examine and discuss reports from the Administering Authority on the political, economic, social and educational advancement of the peoples of Trust Territories and, in consultation with the Administering Authority, to examine petitions from and undertake periodic and other special missions to Trust Territories. In addition, it was established on 1 November 1994. In setting up an International Trusteeship System, the Charter established the Trusteeship Council as one of the main organs of the United Nations and assigned to it the task of supervising the administration of Trust Territories placed under the Trusteeship System. Further, major goals of the System were to promote the advancement of the inhabitants of Trust Territories and their progressive development towards self-government or independence. The Trusteeship Council is made up of the five permanent members of the Security Council –China, France, Russian Federation, United Kingdom and United States. Moreover, the aims of the Trusteeship System have been fulfilled to such an extent that all Trust Territories have attained self-government or independence, either as separate States or by joining neighbouring independent countries.
In a conclusion, united nation is an international organisation that wants to help people all around the world when they are need or the other words is UN aims is to pursue global peace.