Ethics is an art and science of judging moral philosophy and behavior which has serious consequences of harming and rewarding the human well-being and environment. In this study we put ourselves in front of moral dilemma and choose according to our quality of ethical judgment. This is actually brings our strengths and weaknesses inside the heart. This is a study which reminds us what is ‘ethical’ and ‘unethical’ though we seldom follow the right and justice.
The study begins with using the tools of ‘Reasons’, which includes Comprehensiveness, Coherence, Consistent, and Adequate. Comprehensiveness means including all the information while judging on an ethical issue. As for example, choosing to kill or not to kill a women who killed her child is a serious ethical issue. For this we can’t say any single word without collecting all the backgrounds of her killing and herself. Thus comprehensiveness is a very important part of an ethical decision. Then, Coherence refers to relating concepts in a systematic and integrated way. While taking an ethical decision, one must consider to go step by step rather than rushing. Because haphazard ideas cannot give the right decision in a situation. Later on, Consistent information is important for making moral judgments. The information should not be logically contradictory. That is why cross-questioning and verification is vital in taking a decision. And lastly, the issue must be supported by empirical evidence that is what Adequate is. Talking without evidence is nothing less than starting a chaos among people confusing them. And without evidence there is no basis of a judgment to stand on.
So we can realize, Ethics is a combination of Arts and Science. Imaginative and Creative decisions to suit the needs for betterment of all is an Art. Science provides the tools of ‘Reasons’. Based on these, we choose the right or wrong, good or bad. To be clear, not all the good or bad, right or wrong decisions are ethical issues. Such as, going to a destination may have a plain road or a muddy road. Choosing the road differs from people to people and there is no right or wrong here, this is just about preference. So we differentiate between preference and ethics. So, Ethics is only applicable when there is are serious consequences of a decision, either harmful or reward to the human well-being and environment. As for example, Killing, Stealing or Forgiving, Serving.
Even here, we face another dilemma. Comparing between same types of ethical questions. Such as, “Is lying less harmful than killing? To be honest, there is no straight Yes or No answer of this question. Because, our lives are not same at all the points of world, same goes for perspectives. Sometimes, it may look like lying can save some lives, or even killing one or more persons may bring peace in an area. We will never know what exactly will happen in the consequence. Thus, this ethical decision depends on situation. For example, killing some rebels or criminals may bring stability and peace in an area. But what would happen to their families. So can we kill those criminals because they killed others? Here is the ethical judgment. Again, superficially, lying looks less sinful than killing, but all the conflicts and wars are because of lying and betrayal. Millions of innocent lives have been lost because of some smallest lies. On the other hand, there is ‘White Lie’, which doesn’t bring harm to people and may say someone’s life in a critical situation. So there is always fight in human minds between good and evil, putting them into a position to confront their own inner-self.