In week six we have studied about Islamic Ethics. It delivered by Ms. Siti Noor Fauziah. In this topic we revised historical overview, a conceptual analysis, source and origin of Islam, task of Islamic ethics, scope and principles, fundamental ethical principles, honor as an ethical value in Islam.
Firstly, pre-Islamic period called Jahiliyya which means ignorance. Pre-Islamic period marked by polytheism, cultural practice and tribal character. The fatra is period between two prophecies in which, in the absence of a specific revelation when there was no religious obligation. It is latency period between Jesus and Muhammad. When Islam came, Prophet Muhammad was raised as Prophet by the first four caliphs. The changes happened were abandonment of some very common practices (infanticide, gambling, maysir, riba), limitation of polygamy, redefinition of the moral virtues Makarim al-Akhlaaq, Introduction (alms, zakat, monotheistic faith and daily prayer), birth of the Muslim community, called umma.
The background of Islam consists of Aqidah, Shari’ah and Akhlaq. Aqidah is based on faith and believe (Islam, Iman and Ihsan). Shari’ah is based on practices and activities. Lastly, Akhlaq is based on morality and ethics. The conceptual analysis of Islamic ethics is akhlaq (ethics), khuluq and adab. Akhlaq (ethics) is indicates moral philosophy while adab (morality) signifies the actual practice of moral philosophy.
The source and origin of Islam are from Qu’ran and Hadith, Islamic theology, Islamic philosophy, Islamic mysticism and Islamic jurisprudence. As defined by Muslim Philosopher, Islamic ethics is a science that studies the state of human soul. The virtues are good and fair actions while the vices are the wicked and ugly actions. As defined by Muslim Mystics, Islamic ethics is a science of virtues and the way to acquire the wellbeing of the soul, and the vices and the way to guard the soul against them.
The scope and principle of Islamic ethics is transcendental, no evil nor graceless but good (fitrah), universal code of conduct; universal justice and human equality, freedom and liberty, open system approach to ethics, to bring human interest (al-maslahah) and to prevent hardship (al-mafsadah).
The task of Islamic ethics are to understand and expound the ethos of Islam as conceived in the Qu’ran and elaborated in sunnah of Prophets, to discuss the general terms used in Islamic morals (good, bad, right, wrong, meritorious, non-meritorious, responsibility and obligation), to discuss how Islamic ethics in related to and influenced by Islamic faith in Islam, o pronounce judgment on problems that are faced by the Islamic society and to determine what is right and what is wrong.
The fundamental ethical principles in Islams are Unity (Al-Tawhid), Equilibrium (Al-A’dalah), Freedom (Al-Hurriyah), and Responsibility (Al-Mas’uliyyah).
In conclusion, we have many religions in this world and they have specific principles to achieve the good in their own way. Islamic ethics is science to teach people how to conduct in Aqidah of Islam. As a Muslim, I will apply all of the principle and Islamic ethics in order to get better life.