8 Milleniums of goals: HIV/AIDS

INTRODUCTION

HIV Stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus. HIV can damage immune system but in slow condition. The HIV Virus is only attained by humans. There are similar diseases for animals and other organisms but the HIV virus is only found in humans. The areas of people most affected by the virus are in areas of poverty such as the poorest areas in Africa and the “ghettos” of the United States. Essentially, the virus can be found anywhere on the planet but is not transmittable in anyway besides blood and sex. The virus is not hereditary so it is not passed down through generations but can be given to a child if the mother is infected with the virus while giving birth but there are many other cases is preventable. This is such a common disease throughout the world. The research has been founded that such a high rate of virus detected and going to have the cure of its. The illness alters the immune system, making people much more vulnerable to infections and diseases. This susceptibility worsens as the disease progresses

AIDS stands for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. AIDS is the condition diagnosed when there are a group of related symptoms that are caused by advanced HIV infection or when someone has less than 200 CD4 cells. AIDS makes the body vulnerable to life-threatening illnesses called opportunistic infections. To keep HIV from becoming AIDS There are certain medicines and injections to slow down the affects and improve life expectancy. Given this information there is still a strong chance (without treatment) that you will still acquire the AIDS Virus. The odds are approximately 50% with treatment. Both of the virus and the disease are often referred as HIV/AIDS. People with HIV have what is called HIV infection. As a result, some of them will develop AIDS. The development of AIDS can ultimately lead them to death. According to research, the origins of HIV date back to the late nineteenth or early twentieth century in west-central Africa. AIDS caused HIV, were first identified and recognized in the early 1980s. There is currently no cure for both of them. Treatments can slow the diseases to transmit to others people and make the infected people can live long and get healthy life. This disease usually happen when poverty come across.

THESIS STATEMENT

HIV infection causes AIDS to develop. However, it is possible to be infected with HIV without developing AIDS. Without treatment, the HIV infection is allowed to progress. HIV testing can identify infection on the early stages. This stage allow the patient to use prophylactic (preventive) drugs which is will slow the rate of virus replicates and delaying the onset of AIDS. To detect HIV/AIDS, there are some sign/symptoms such as a swelling, rash or change in skin colour. Besides that, some patients describe their feeling such as headache, fatigue, fever, joint pain, chills, tiredness or weight loss. The symptoms of HIV/AIDS are result of infection caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. These conditions do not normally develop in individuals with healthy immune system.

HIV is found in the body fluids of an infected person (semen and vaginal fluids, blood and breast milk). The virus is passed from one person to another through blood-to-blood and sexual contact. In addition, infected pregnant women can pass HIV to their babies during pregnancy, delivering the baby during childbirth, and through breast feeding.

HIV can be transmitted in many ways, such as vaginal, oral sex, anal sex, blood transfusion, and contaminated hypodermic needles. HIV is a retrovirus that infects the vital organs of the human immune system. The disease progresses in the absence of antiretroviral therapy. The rate of disease progression varies widely between individuals and depends on many factors (age of the patient, body’s ability to defend against HIV, access to health care, existence of coexisting infections, the infected person’s genetic inheritance, resistance to certain strains of HIV).

HIV can be transmitted through sexual transmission. It can happen when there is contact with infected sexual secretions (rectal, genital or oral mucous membranes). This can happen while having unprotected sex, including vaginal, oral and anal sex or sharing sex toys with someone infected with HIV. Secondly is by prenatal transmission. The mother can pass the infection on to her child during childbirth, pregnancy, and also through breastfeeding. Thirdly is by blood transmission. The risk of transmitting HIV through blood transfusion is nowadays extremely low in developed countries, thanks to meticulous screening and precautions. Among drug users, sharing and reusing syringes contaminated with HIV infected blood is extremely hazardous. It is dangerous when the individuals give and receive tattoos and piercing.

ARGUMENT 1

Most of the infected person can detect their disease by Ultra-Sensitive HIV sensor. Scientists from Imperial College London reported in Nature Nanotechnology (October 2012 issue) that they have developed an extremely sensitive sensor that detects viral infections, including HIV. They say the sensor is ten times more sensitive at detecting an HIV biomarker that anything else on the market today. It is also extremely cheap. The doctor can see the results by looking at the colour change in a liquid solution. A 2011 report issued by the CDC (Centres for Disease Control and Prevention), USA, found that about 1 in every 5 HIV positive. American is unaware of their HIV status and only 49% of those who are aware receive on going medical care and treatment. HIV blood test diagnosis is made through a blood test that screens specifically for the virus. If the HIV virus has been found, the test result is “positive”. The blood is re-tested several times before a positive result is given to the patient. For those whose tests came back positive, they will be asked to undergo some other tests to see how the infection has progressed and also to decide when to start treatment. If a person has been exposed to the virus, it is crucial that they get tested as soon as possible. The earlier HIV is detected, the more likely the treatment will be successful. Also, precautions can be taken to prevent the virus from spreading to other people. After infection with HIV, it can take up from three weeks to three months for the virus to show up in testing. Re- testing may be necessary. If a patient’s most at risk moment of becoming HIV infected was within the last three months, he/she can have the test immediately. However, a good doctor will urge that another test be carried out within a few weeks.

To prevent to get the diseases such as HIV/AIDS, there are some non-prevention precautions such as unprotected sex, drug abuse & needle sharing and body fluid exposure. Having sex without a condom can put a person at risk of being infected with HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). HIV can be spread by having unprotected sex (vaginal, oral and anal sex). It can also be caught from sharing sex toys with someone infected with HIV. Intravenous drug use is an important factor in HIV transmission in developed countries. Sharing needles can expose users to HIV and other viruses, such as hepatitis C.

Strategies such as needle-exchange programs are used to reduce the infections caused by drug abuse. Exposure to HIV can be controlled by employing precautions to reduce the risk of exposure to contaminated blood. At all times, health care workers should use barriers (gloves, masks, protective eyewear, shields, and gowns). Frequent and thorough washing of the skin immediately after being contaminated with blood or other bodily fluids can reduce the chance of infection. Anti-HIV medicines can harm the unborn child. But an effective treatment plan can prevent HIV transmission from mother to baby. Precautions have to be taken to protect the baby’s health. Delivery through caesarean section may be necessary. Breastfeeding may have to give way to bottle-feeding if the mother is infected.

ARGUMENT 2

Once HIV/AIDS has detected, the earlier of treatment has needed to prevent the virus to spread very fast. They need to be alert to avoid the virus to become more dangerous. Earlier HIV anti-retroviral treatment is crucial to improve the quality of life, extends life expectancy and reduces the risk of transmission. According to the World Health Organization’s new guidelines issued in June 2013.When HIV-positive adult’s CD4 cell count is 500 cells/mm3 or lower, they should start treatment immediately. HIV-positive patients and those with AIDS tend to suffer from diarrhoea. It is the main reason people go off their medications or switch to other anti-retroviral therapies prematurely. On January 2nd 2013, the US Food and Drug Administration approved Fulyzaq (crofelemer 125 mg delayed-release tablets), the first anti-diarrhoeal medication for patients with HIV/AIDS. Fulyzaq was created specifically for patients taking anti-retroviral therapy for HIV/AIDS. Anti-fungal cream Ciclopirox eradicates HIV. Researchers at the Rutgers New Jersey Medical School reported in the journal PLoS ONE that Ciclopirox, a widely used anti-fungal cream, as well as Defer prone, a medication used to remove excess iron from the body, eradicate HIV in cultured cells. They added that when treatment stops, the virus does not return.

Although widely used, alternative/complementary medications, such has herbal ones, have not been proven to be effective or ineffective. According to some limited studies, mineral or vitamin supplements may provide some benefits. Patients are urged to discuss these options with their doctors. New gene may prevent HIV from spreading. Scientists at King’s College London say they have discovered a new gene that can stop HIV from spreading. Once it is inside the human body. According to the authors, who published their study in the journal Nature, the gene – MX2 – could be included in new more effective and less toxic HIV treatments. Lead researcher, Professor Mike Malim, said “This is an extremely exciting finding which advances our understanding of how HIV virus interacts with the immune system and opens up opportunities to develop new therapies to treat the disease. Until now, we knew very little about the MX2 gene, but now we recognize both its potent anti-viral function and a key point of vulnerability in the life cycle of HIV.”

ARGUMENT 3

While having these diseases, they can prevent the virus and get healthy life. Most of infected and people think that no cure for these diseases. Their judgement is correct but nowadays, the doctor found the treatment can remain constant of the virus to separate. According to Margaret Chan, WHO Director of General, “These guidelines represent another leap ahead in a trend of ever-higher goals and ever-greater achievements”. Based on researched, nearly 10 million people now on anti-retroviral therapy. We can see such prospects that unthinkable just a few years ago – can now fuel the momentum needed to push the HIV epidemic into irreversible decline.” Currently, there is no vaccine or cure for HIV/AIDS. But treatments have evolved which are much more efficacious. They can improve patients’ general health and quality of life considerably.

If an individual believes they have been exposed to the virus within the last 72 hours (three days), anti-HIV medication, called PEP (post-exposure prophylaxis) may stop infection. The treatment should be taken as soon as possible after contact with the virus. PEP is a very demanding treatment lasting four weeks. It is also associated with unpleasant side effects (diarrhoea, malaise, nausea, weakness and fatigue). After a positive HIV diagnosis, regular blood tests are necessary to monitor the progress of the virus before starting treatment. The therapy is designed to reduce the level of HIV in the blood. HIV is treated with anti-retroviral (ARV s). The treatment fights the HIV infection and slows down the spread of the virus in the body. Generally, patients take a combination of medications called HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy).The combination of drugs is adapted to each individual. HIV treatment is usually permanent and lifelong. HIV treatment is based on routine dosage. Pills must be taken on a regular schedule, every time. Common side effects include nausea, fatigue, diarrhoea, skin rashes, moodiness, alterations to the adipose (fat) tissue, birth defects.

CONCLUSION

OIC International’s Health, Nutrition & HIV/AIDS programs provide health education and palliative care to ensure that individuals and communities have the knowledge and resources to lead healthy lives. We focus our efforts on communities where malnutrition is high and the need for family planning, reproductive health and HIV/AIDS awareness and education is evident. We operate in the areas of health skills, maternal and child health and nutrition, family planning, adolescent reproductive health and HIV/AIDS. In particular, we emphasize service to at risk populations such as orphans and vulnerable children (OVC s) and people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV s). The importance of comprehensive, holistic care is strongly reflected in our program design. We are not only provide education and assistance in health care, but also train community leaders and individuals to develop expertise in home-based care and support such as maternal and child care, psychosocial counselling or HIV/AIDS related care. So, that they can help their communities lead healthier lives.

REFERENCES

OIC international (2013). Health, nutrition, HIV/AIDS. OIC international: New York.

Retrieved from http://www.oici.org/programs/health-nutritionhivaids/?gclid=CMWKn5LYwLsCFU1T4godSS4ATw

(2013, 06). Hiv/Aids Research Paper. StudyMode.com. Retrieved 06, 2013, from http://www.studymode.com/essays/Hiv-Aids-Research-Paper-1765302.html

http://www.studymode.com/essays/Hiv-Aids-Research-Paper-1765302.html

Ramsamudralla. (2013). Pseudointellectual ramblings. Retrieved from http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/17131.php

University of California San Fransisco. (August 13, 2011). What are HIV/AIDS. Retrieved from http://hivinsite.ucsf.edu/hiv?page=basics-00-01

MNT. (2013). Retrieved from http://www.ram.org/ramblings/science/HIV_AIDS.html

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